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Costs of Interactions

Time and cognitive effort required to execute commands via the different interaction opportunities available in macOS will need to be measured. The different degrees of cost make up a gamut from a full view change/toggle as far as the user feels (subjectively) to a subjective user experience of a simple view modification, where the computer action is not the determinant (in other words it does not matter objectively how much changes) but how effortful or effortless the user reports the interaction to be.



The action of pointing to the macOS menubar, finding the right command and activating.

Core Keyboard Shortcuts

This interaction is intimately related to the anatomy of the human hand, since some keyboard shortcuts will be a better fit to the movement range of the hand and fingers, including pinching and swipes.

Alternative Keyboard Shortcuts

The human hand has a limited and specific range of what is comfortable to extend to, and within the general range there are different levels of flexibility. This means that for the commands used by the operating system and for basic, older commands, the most comfortable positions will be taken. This is why it is necessary to add a section on alternative keyboard shortcuts so that, for example, the Microsoft Word keyboard ctrl-command-f to goggle full screen can be evaluated for it’s own utility and not as though it is as simple as a command-s for example.


Each individual gesture (relevant and free to use, meaning not reserved for OS use) afforded by the macOS trackpad will need testing for cognitive load and time.

Individual Keys

Individual keys, such as ESC.

Dropdown Menu

Dropdown in the window itself.

Icon in in Window Bar

Click on an icon/text at the top of the document window.


Select text and click while holding down the CTRL key on the keyboard/left click.


Published inPhD

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