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Who Established Muslim Rule in India

The Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad remained semi-independent rulers of present-day West Bengal and Bangladesh. Nawab of Awadh ruled parts of present-day Uttar Pradesh. Other important rulers of the slave dynasty who consolidated and expanded the empire were Iltutmiah and Balban. Altutmish not only saved the dismemberment of the Muslim empire by containing various revolts of the governors of Bengal and Bihar, but also conquered Malwa and Sindh. The term Deccan Sultanate[101] has been used for five Muslim dynasties that ruled over several Indian kingdoms of the late Middle Ages, namely the Sultanate of Bijapur,[102] the Sultanate of Golkonda,[103] the Sultanate of Ahmadnagar,[104] the Sultanate of Bidar,[105] and the Sultanate of Berar,[106] in South India. The Deccan Sultanates dominated the Deccan Plateau between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range. These sultanates became independent with the disintegration of the Sultanate of Bahmani, another Muslim empire. [107] The eventual end of modern India`s period of Muslim rule is mainly marked by the beginning of British rule, although its aspects persisted in the state of Hyderabad, the state of Junagadh, the state of Jammu and Kashmir, and other small princely states until the mid-20th century. Today`s modern Bangladesh, the Maldives and Pakistan are the Muslim-majority nations of the Indian subcontinent, while India has the largest Muslim minority in the world with more than 180 million inhabitants. After the Tughlaqs, Sayyid Khizar Khan ascended the throne of Delhi and founded the Sayyid dynasty. In total, there were four rulers of this dynasty, but their reign was limited to the walls of Delhi alone. They did not adopt the royal style, nor mint coins in their own name. During their time, repeated rebellions broke out in various parts, and these leaders had to spend much of their energy to suppress these rebellions.

This was the beginning of a protracted struggle between the rulers of Kabul and Zabul against the successive Arab governors of Sistan, Khurasan and Makran in present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Shahi kings of Kabul and their Zunbil relatives blocked access to the Khyber Pass and Gomal Pass roads to India from 653 to 870 AD,[27] while modern Balochistan, Pakistan, which included the kikan or Qiqanan regions, Nukan, Turan, Buqan, Qufs, Mashkey and Makran, between 661 and 711 AD. ==External links==[28] The Arabs launched several raids on these border areas, but repeated rebellions in Sistan and Khurasan between 653 and 691 AD diverted much of their military resources to subjugate these provinces and move them away from expansion in Al Hind. Muslim control over these areas diminished and then sank repeatedly until 870 AD. Arab troops did not like to be stationed in Makran[29] and were reluctant to fight in the Kabul and Zabulistan region due to the difficult terrain and the underestimation of Zunbil`s power. [30] The Arab strategy was tributary traction instead of systematic conquest. The fierce resistance of Zunbil and Turki Shah has repeatedly paralyzed Arab progress in the “border area.” [31] [32] There is no doubt that the most important power that emerged in the long twilight of the Mughal dynasty was the Maratha Confederation (1674-1818). [118] The Marathas are largely responsible for the end of Mughal rule in India. [119] The Maratha Empire ruled over large parts of India after the fall of the Mughals. The long and senseless war bankrupted one of the world`s most powerful empires.

Mountstuart Elphinstone called this period a demoralizing period for Muslims, as many of them lost the will to fight against the Maratha Empire. [120] [121] [122] At its peak, the Maratha Empire stretched from Tamil Nadu (Trichinopoly) “present Tiruchirappalli” in the south to the Afghan border in the north. [123] [124] [125] In early 1771, Mahadji, a remarkable Maratha general, reconquered Delhi and installed Shah Alam II as the puppet ruler on the Mughal throne. In northern India, the Marathas regained the territory and prestige lost in the defeat of Panipath in 1761. [126] However, the regions of Kashmir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Western Punjab, conquered by the Marathas between 1758 and 1759, remained under Afghan rule before the rise of Sikh rule. [127] Mahadji ruled Punjab as it was Mughal territory and the Sikh Sardars and other Rajas of the Cis-Sutlej region paid homage to him. [128] A considerable part of the Indian subcontinent came under the rule of the British Empire after the Third Anglo-Maratha War, which ended the Maratha Empire in 1818. Mu`izz al-Din, better known as Shahāb-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori, was a conqueror of the Ghor region of present-day Afghanistan. Before 1160, the Ghaznavid Empire encompassed an area stretching from central Iran in the east to Punjab, with capitals at Ghazni on the banks of the Ghazni River in present-day Afghanistan and Lahore in present-day Pakistan.

In 1160, the Ghurids conquered Ghazni from the Ghaznavids, and in 1173 Muhammad Bin Sām was appointed governor of Ghazni. In 1186 and 1187, he conquered Lahore in alliance with a local Hindu ruler, ended the Ghaznavid Empire and put the last ghaznavid territory under his control, and appeared as the first Muslim ruler seriously interested in expanding his domain on the subcontinent, and like his predecessor, Mahmud first began against the Ismaili kingdom of Multan, which had regained its independence during the Nizari conflicts. and then click Loot and Power. .

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