Media & Mind

In my research I have come across quite a few ‘revelatory’ descriptions of how our media and our tools are part of us, from McLuhan and Churchill to more modern thinkers including Paul Smart, Richard Menary, Keith Oatley and Maja Djikic. To me this seems so obvious that it’s hard to quite understand how it’s revelatory and how it’s even a story but let me paint a picture from my personal situation nevertheless:

My son is due to be born on the 11th of May 2017 and one of the biggest surprises for my wife and I during the pregnancy is the amount of movement in the womb. When friends were pregnant it was of course a privilege when we were invited to touch the belly and we were told sometimes there would be ‘kicks’ but in our small experience we really just felt a beautiful big round belly.

With our son, now that we have the privilege of being with him all the time, it’s not the odd little kick, he does a huge amount of kicks and punches and twists which leads to a fundamental insight into who we are: The coding in our Deoxyribonucleic acid does not include a map or a schema for how our bodies will be at every stage of life – there is no clock in our minds which changes our bodily sensorimotor maps at specific intervals as we grow. How could there be, we grow at different rates according to extra genetic factors such as the availability of food, the amount of exercise we do and so on.

What we do have is a sensory motor feedback system which continuously updates our schema based on what happens when we interact with the world, we update our a map of our perceptions, to quote Mark Stahlman’s comment on the chapter on Facebook. My son is banging about in the womb and this allows him to build up a map of who ‘he’ is and ‘what’ his world is and how the two relates. My son will be born into a cold, bright world where he will have to start to breathe, eat and move around. As he does so, he will continue to flail about and in so doing, he is learning what his arms and legs are – how long they are, how strong and flexible they are and so on. He is learning about what he is through interaction, he is learning about his reach.

He will not be born with a full understanding of his body and as he grows his interactions with the world will change as he gets stronger and as he learns to sit and crawl and walk and run and smile – he will learn how his weight is carried across the world by his muscles and he will learn how his facial expressions carry weight with those around him, in the social world.

As he gets on a bicycle (and oh! How I look forward to that day!) he will start part of that process again. As he uses a smartphone, a laptop, a VR headset, AR systems and more, he will continually learn about his extended reach.

It is quite clear that the difference between his arms at 1 month, 1 year and 10 years are profound, as would the differences be if he starts to work out in the gym or if he chooses the couch. This difference can be carried cross quite naturally and with quite the same mental mechanisms as his little newborn hand with his mother’s fingers or his hands with a baseball bat, his hands on a bicycle steering wheel or his hands on a keyboard learning to type and using keyboard shortcuts.

The edge of his being will not be a hard edge at his fingertips, it will be at the edge of his interactions and his understanding.  

Prosodic Cues

“In linguistics, prosody (from Ancient Greek: προσῳδίᾱ prosōidíā “song sung to music; tone or accent of a syllable”, is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech. These contribute to linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm. wikipedia

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Visual-Syntactic Text Formatting: Theoretical Basis and Empirical Evidence for Impact on Human Reading

Visual-Syntactic Text Formatting: Theoretical Basis and Empirical Evidence for Impact on Human Reading

Randall C. Walker, MD, Walker Reading Tech., Inc. Bloomington, Minnesota rwalker@liveink.com, Adam S. Gordon, Walker Reading Tech., Inc. Bloomington, Minnesota adam.gordon@liveink.com, Phil Schloss, BSEE, Walker Reading Tech., Inc. Bloomington, Minnesota phil@red-castle.com, Charles R. Fletcher, PhD, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota fletc002@umn.edu, Charles A. Vogel, PhD, Eagle Valley School District Eagle, Colorado cvogel@eagleschools.net, Stan Walker, MD, Northwest Eye Clinic Minneapolis, Minnesota dr.walker@nweyeclinic.com

Abstract

Visual-Syntactic Text Formatting (VSTF) algorithms first analyze, then reformat a sentence into cascading patterns that cue syntactic structure and assist visual- processing.

VSTF was evaluated in yearlong, classroom-based, randomized controlled trials, with in-class reading sessions (25 minutes per session, twice a week), using electronic textbooks for high school students.

Pretest- posttest analysis showed that, in each grade, VSTF students had significantly higher scores on nationally standardized (and conventionally formatted) reading proficiency tests over controls; effect sizes ranged from .41 to .69 standard deviations, and the one-year growth in reading proficiency with VSTF was equivalent to 2 to 3 years’ of additional growth in study and national controls. VSTF groups also significantly increased scores, with medium effect sizes, on standardized quizzes and exami- nations for comprehension and retention of the material in the textbooks.

Key words: Text formatting; Syntactic Processing; Reading Comprehension 

Example, from screenshot

 

Theoretical Background

A wide range of neurocognitive, linguis- tic, and psychological research affirms that an important dimension for the representation of meaning in natural spoken language is syntax.

However, syntax is more complex than a simple, concatenated sequence of one phrase after another; rather, it is hierarchical, much like a set of Russian dolls, in which smaller dolls, or phrase- groups, are “nested” inside ever-larger ones. The human mind’s capacity to build sentences through the recursive process of nesting language units inside other units, and thereby transforming them, is the essential feature that enables human language to represent an infinite number of meanings.

Layout to serve as Prosodic cues

When natural language is spoken, it is produced, perceived, and interpreted as a linear structure — through time — which limits its capacity for conveying the multi-dimensional, hierarchical structures of syntax. Nevertheless, this linear structure can be enriched with prosodic cues, which in turn can denote syntactic relation- ships to enhance the efficiency of a listener’s comprehension of a spoken sentence. Prosodic cues, (In linguistics, prosody (from Ancient Greek: προσῳδίᾱ prosōidíā “song sung to music; tone or accent of a syllable”, is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech. These contribute to linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm. wikipedia) which give speech a highly differentiated acoustic structure beyond the acoustic representations of the words themselves, are more subtle and multidimensional than the simple pauses that occur at major phrase boundaries, and have been shown to be powerful enough to enable listeners to accurately predict the syntactic categories of about-to-be uttered phrases, based on prosodic patterns leading up to the not-yet-uttered phrase.

Up to the present time, the transcription of natural language sentences has also been linear. Within such linear scripts, some specific cues, (such as punctuation marks), denote syntactic boundaries; some (but not all) of these punctuation marks correspond to pauses and prosodic variations in spoken language.However, when sentences become longer and more complex, working memory is overloaded, and the effi- ciency of comprehension can break down.

The purpose of VSTF is to make a sentence diagram that can similarly increase reading comprehension of the sentence itself;
but it does not simply make a diagram of a sentence —
rather, it makes a diagram with (and only with)
the words of a sentence,
positioning the words and
segments into specific locations relative to one another to create
“extra- linear” structural information.