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Category: [Glossary Term]

Linked Data

Linked Data is a method of publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful through semantic queries.

Tim Berners-Lee outlined four principles of linked data in his “Linked Data” note of 2006:


•  Use URIs to name (identify) things. 

•  Use HTTP URIs so that these things can be looked up (interpreted, “dereferenced”). 

•  Provide useful information about what a name identifies when it’s looked up, using open standards such as RDF, SPARQL, etc. 

•  Refer to other things using their HTTP URI-based names when publishing data on the Web. 

Tim Berners-Lee gave a presentation on linked data at the TED 2009 conference. In it, he restated the linked data principles as three “extremely simple” rules:


•  All kinds of conceptual things, they have names now that start with HTTP. 

•  If I take one of these HTTP names and I look it up…I will get back some data in a standard format which is kind of useful data that somebody might like to know about that thing, about that event. 

•  When I get back that information it’s not just got somebody’s height and weight and when they were born, its got relationships. And when it has relationships, whenever it expresses a relationship then the other thing that it’s related to is given one of those names that starts with HTTP.

Linked Open Data (LOD) is Linked Data which is released under an open licence, which does not impede its reuse for free.

Tim Berners-Lee, Linked Data

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Joseph D. Novak, Concept Mapping Pioneer

His current research work includes studies on student’s ideas on learning and epistemology, and methods of applying educational ideas and tools (such as concept mapping) in corporate settings and distance learning programs. Present work includes the development of ‘expert” concept maps to “scaffold’ learning, using Cmapping with Internet and other resources, providing A New Model for Education. A new project is underway to explore ways to use concept maps together with brain imaging strategies to help discern brain functioning.

Concept maps were developed in 1972 in the course of Novak’s research program at Cornell where he sought to follow and understand changes in children’s knowledge of science (Novak & Musonda, 1991). During the course of this study the researchers interviewed many children, and they found it difficult to identify specific changes in the children’s understanding of science concepts by examination of interview transcripts. This program was based on the learning psychology of David Ausubel (1963; 1968; Ausubel et al., 1978). 

The fundamental idea in Ausubel’s cognitive psychology is that learning takes place by the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing concept and propositional frameworks held by the learner. This knowledge structure as held by a learner is also referred to as the individual’s cognitive structure. 

Out of the necessity to find a better way to represent children’s conceptual understanding emerged the idea of representing children’s knowledge in the form of a concept map. Thus was born a new tool not only for use in research, but also for many other uses.

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