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Category: Literature Review

Wording & Categories

Let’s have a look at the language of laying out text in a visual, non-liner way, as a text space:

 

-graph

“modern word-forming element meaning “instrument for recording; that which writes, marks, or describes; something written,” from Greek -graphos “-writing, -writer” ” (Harper, etymonline.com)

 

Graph

“A diagram showing the relation between variable quantities, typically of two variables, each measured along one of a pair of axes at right angles.” (en.oxforddictionaries.com)

 

Graph (abstract data type)

“In computer science, a graph is an abstract data type that is meant to implement the undirected graph and directed graph concepts from mathematics. A graph data structure consists of a finite (and possibly mutable) set of vertices or nodes or points, together with a set of unordered pairs of these vertices for an undirected graph or a set of ordered pairs for a directed graph. These pairs are known as edges, arcs, or lines for an undirected graph and as arrows, directed edges, directed arcs, or directed lines for a directed graph. The vertices may be part of the graph structure, or may be external entities represented by integer indices or references.” (en.wikipedia.org)

 

This type of graph becomes a type of diagram:

 

Diagram

“A simplified drawing showing the appearance, structure, or workings of something; a schematic representation” (en.oxforddictionaries.com)

 

And we can now look at different ‘maps’

 

Map

1520s, shortening of Middle English mapemounde “map of the world” (late 14c.), and in part from Middle French mappe, shortening of Old French mapemonde, both English and French words from Medieval Latin mappa mundi “map of the world;” first element from Latin mappa “napkin, cloth” (on which maps were drawn), “tablecloth, signal-cloth, flag,” said by Quintilian to be of Punic origin (compare Talmudic Hebrew mappa, contraction of Mishnaic menaphah “a fluttering banner, streaming cloth”) + Latin mundi “of the world,” from mundus “universe, world” (see mundane).” (etymonline.com)

 

Concept Map

“Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge. They include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two concepts. Words on the line, referred to as linking words or linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts.” (Joseph D. Novak & Alberto J. Cañas, cmap.ihmc.us)

So far so simple and plain, something anyone coming to the system could naturally do. However, Concept Maps have other design constrained. (From same web page):

 

  • Concept is a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label.
  • The label for most concepts is a word, although sometimes we use symbols such as + or %, and sometimes more than one word is used.
  • Propositions are statements about some object or event in the universe, either naturally occurring or constructed.
  • Propositions contain two or more concepts connected using linking words or phrases to form a meaningful statement.
  • Sometimes these are called semantic units, or units of meaning. Figure 1 shows an example of a concept map that describes the structure of concept maps and illustrates the above characteristics.

 

So this complicated, constrains and gives more power for specific use-cases.

 

Topic Map

 

Topic Maps represents information similarly to Concept Maps using the following elements (wikipedia):

 

  • Topics representing any concept, from people, countries, and organizations to software modules, individual files, and events,
  • Associations representing hypergraph relationships between topics, and
  • Occurrences representing information resources relevant to a particular top

 

Mind Map

A hierarchical Concept Map with a central node.

 

Digital Desktop Notes

“Desktop notes are computer applications that allow putting Post-it note-like windows on the screen, with reminders, short notes and other clippings. They are typically rectangular and yellow, like their real-world counterpart, but most applications support other colours and more elaborate designs.” (en.wikipedia.org)

These get a bit closer to the basic casual interaction I am talking about.

 

Text-Graph (?)

All this means is that we are looking to develop something new, something as simple as text connected with lines (ala Scapple, which I use for my work on the Interactive Text Space) combined with rich interactivity and connection possibilities.

 

 

 

 

 

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Joseph D. Novak, Concept Mapping Pioneer

His current research work includes studies on student’s ideas on learning and epistemology, and methods of applying educational ideas and tools (such as concept mapping) in corporate settings and distance learning programs. Present work includes the development of ‘expert” concept maps to “scaffold’ learning, using Cmapping with Internet and other resources, providing A New Model for Education. A new project is underway to explore ways to use concept maps together with brain imaging strategies to help discern brain functioning. 

https://www.ihmc.us/groups/jnovak/

Concept maps were developed in 1972 in the course of Novak’s research program at Cornell where he sought to follow and understand changes in children’s knowledge of science (Novak & Musonda, 1991). During the course of this study the researchers interviewed many children, and they found it difficult to identify specific changes in the children’s understanding of science concepts by examination of interview transcripts. This program was based on the learning psychology of David Ausubel (1963; 1968; Ausubel et al., 1978). 

The fundamental idea in Ausubel’s cognitive psychology is that learning takes place by the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing concept and propositional frameworks held by the learner. This knowledge structure as held by a learner is also referred to as the individual’s cognitive structure. 

Out of the necessity to find a better way to represent children’s conceptual understanding emerged the idea of representing children’s knowledge in the form of a concept map. Thus was born a new tool not only for use in research, but also for many other uses.

http://cmap.ihmc.us/docs/theory-of-concept-maps

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Concept Map

Foundation/Premise

“Novak’s work is based on the cognitive theories of David Ausubel, who stressed the importance of prior knowledge in being able to learn (or assimilate) new concepts: “The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach accordingly.”[8] Novak taught students as young as six years old to make concept maps to represent their response to focus questions such as “What is water?” “What causes the seasons?” In his book Learning How to Learn, Novak states that a “meaningful learning involves the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing cognitive structures.”

Various attempts have been made to conceptualize the process of creating concept maps. Ray McAleese, in a series of articles, has suggested that mapping is a process of off-loading. In this 1998 paper, McAleese draws on the work of Sowa[9] and a paper by Sweller & Chandler.[10] In essence, McAleese suggests that the process of making knowledge explicit, using nodes and relationships, allows the individual to become aware of what they know and as a result to be able to modify what they know.[11] Maria Birbili applies that same idea to helping young children learn to think about what they know.[12] The concept of the knowledge arena is suggestive of a virtual space where learners may explore what they know and what they do not know.
Wikipedia

Introduction, From Novak’s Organization’s Site

Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge.

They include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two concepts.

Words on the line, referred to as linking words or linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts.

We define concept as a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label.

The label for most concepts is a word, although sometimes we use symbols such as + or %, and sometimes more than one word is used.

Propositions are statements about some object or event in the universe, either naturally occurring or constructed.

Propositions contain two or more concepts connected using linking words or phrases to form a meaningful statement. Sometimes these are called semantic units, or units of meaning. Figure 1 shows an example of a concept map that describes the structure of concept maps and illustrates the above characteristics.

Another characteristic of concept maps is that the concepts are represented in a hierarchical fashion with the most inclusive, most general concepts at the top of the map and the more specific, less general concepts arranged hierarchically below. The hierarchical structure for a particular domain of knowledge also depends on the context in which that knowledge is being applied or considered. Therefore, it is best to construct concept maps with reference to some particular question we seek to answer, which we have called a focus question.

The concept map may pertain to some situation or event that we are trying to understand through the organization of knowledge in the form of a concept map, thus providing the context for the concept map.

Another important characteristic of concept maps is the inclusion of cross-links. These are relationships or links between concepts in different segments or domains of the concept map. Cross-links help us see how a concept in one domain of knowledge represented on the map is related to a concept in another domain shown on the map. In the creation of new knowledge, cross-links often represent creative leaps on the part of the knowledge producer.

There are two features of concept maps that are important in the facilitation of creative thinking:

  • the hierarchical structure that is represented in a good map and
  • the ability to search for and characterize new cross-links.

A final feature that may be added to concept maps is specific examples of events or objects that help to clarify the meaning of a given concept. Normally these are not included in ovals or boxes, since they are specific events or objects and do not represent concepts.


The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them

http://cmap.ihmc.us/docs/theory-of-concept-maps

Joseph D. Novak & Alberto J. Cañas

Institute for Human and Machine Cognition. Pensacola Fl, 32502 www.ihmc.us Technical Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01 Rev 2008-01

History/Origins 

The technique of concept mapping was developed by Joseph D. Novak and his research team at Cornell University in the 1970s as a means of representing the emerging science knowledge of students.
https://www.ihmc.us/groups/jnovak/

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