In Sweden, about 90% of all employees are covered by collective agreements, in the private sector 83% (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. In Sweden, there is no legal regulation of the minimum wage or legislation on the extension of collective agreements to non-unionized employers. Non-unionized employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many cannot. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to jobs and workers covered by collective agreements.  The American Federation of Labor was founded in 1886 and offered unprecedented bargaining power to a variety of workers.  The Railway Labour Act (1926) required employers to bargain collectively with trade unions. The United Steelworkers used the density and strength of its union to establish a national bargaining relationship with International Paper (PI). In the past, the union`s relationship with IP was controversial and collective bargaining was fragmented between many different regions and locals, but the union now negotiates with IP on two national agreements that set wages and benefits. One agreement includes 5,800 workers in 17 paper mills, and the other agreement includes 4,700 workers in 55 box mills across the country. Site-specific issues are then negotiated at the local level.
The union represents workers in about 70% of IP factories and 60% of IP box factories. In contrast, the union represents only the workers at four of Kimberly Clark`s 18 plants, and the union has not yet been able to win national collective bargaining at Kimberly Clark.23 The NLRA establishes procedures for choosing a work organization that represents a unit of workers in collective bargaining. Employers are prohibited by law from interfering in this selection. The NLRA requires the employer to negotiate with the designated representative of its employees. It does not require either party to accept a proposal or make concessions, but establishes procedural guidelines for good faith negotiations. Proposals that violate the NLRA or other laws may not be subject to collective bargaining. The NLRA also establishes rules on tactics (p.B strikes, lockouts, pickets) that each party can use to achieve its bargaining objectives. UNITE HERE, the hotel and hospitality union, has developed a model for negotiation with major hotel chains that are approaching national collective bargaining. The benefits of this approach are evident in what UNITE HERE members were able to achieve at Marriott Corporation in the fall of 2018. Seven different UNITE HERE locals in seven locations – Detroit, Boston, San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, San Diego and Hawaii – negotiated separate contracts, but as previous collective agreements expired at the same time, workers had more influence than they would have had if they had haggled in one place. Workers went on strike at Marriott hotels at each of the sites, demanding better wages and benefits under the banner “One job should be enough.” Workers have obtained, among other things, significant increases, improvements in their pensions and strong protection against sexual harassment.
The agreements affected 7,700 of the 20,000 UNITE HERE members who work for Marriott.28 Because the agreements have such broad coverage for employees at Marriott facilities across the country, the agreements set a standard for the industry, meaning that thousands of additional hotel employees employed by different companies at all seven sites have achieved the same or similar improvements….